1973 Paris Air Show crash

The 1973 Paris Air Show crash was the crash of the second production Tupolev Tu-144 at Goussainville, Val-d'Oise, France, which killed all six crew and a further eight people on the ground. The crash, at the Paris Air Show on 3 June 1973, damaged the development program of the Tupolev Tu-144. One theory is that a French Mirage jet sent to photograph the aircraft without the knowledge of the Soviet crew caused the pilots to take evasive maneuvers, resulting in the crash. Another theory is that in a rivalry with the Anglo-French Concorde, the pilots attempted a maneuver that was beyond the capabilities of the aircraft.


The aircraft involved was Tupolev Tu-144S CCCP-77102, manufacturer's serial number 01-2, the second production Tu-144. The aircraft had first flown on 29 March 1972. This aircraft had been heavily modified compared to the initial prototype, now featuring engine nacelles split on either side of the fuselage, landing gear that retracted into the nacelles, and retractable foreplanes. The pilot was Mikhail Kozlov, and the co-pilot was Valery M. Molchanov. Also on board were G. N. Bazhenov, the flight navigator, V. N. Benderov, deputy chief designer and engineer major-general, B. A. Pervukhin, senior engineer, and A. I. Dralin, flight engineer. The crash occurred in front of 250,000 people, including designer Alexei Tupolev, towards the end of the show.

During the show, there was a "fierce competition between the Anglo-French Concorde and the Russian TU-144". The Soviet pilot, Mikhail Kozlov, had bragged that he would outperform the Concorde. "Just wait until you see us fly," he was quoted as saying. "Then you'll see something." On the final day of the show, the Concorde, which was not yet in production, performed its demonstration flight first. Its performance was later described as being unexciting, and it has been theorized that Kozlov was determined to show how much better his aircraft was.

Once in flight, the aircraft made what appeared to be a landing approach, with the landing gear out and the "moustache" foreplanes extended, but then engaged all four engines and climbed rapidly. Possibly stalling below 2,000 ft (610 m), the aircraft pitched over and went into a steep dive. Trying to pull out of the subsequent dive with the engines again at full power, the Tu-144 broke up in mid-air. The left wing came away first, and then the aircraft disintegrated and crashed, destroying 15 houses, and killing all six people on board the Tu-144 and eight more on the ground. Three children were among those killed, and sixty people received severe injuries.


The crew of the Tu-144 were buried at the Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow on 12 June 1973; during the ceremony Pyotr Dementiev, the Minister of the Aircraft Industry, gave a speech.

Following the crash, Marcel Dassault called for the 1975 Paris Air Show to be held at Istres, which is situated in open country 25 miles (40 km) north west of Marseille.

The crash reduced the enthusiasm of Aeroflot for the Tu-144. Restrictions on the Tu-144 following the Paris Air Show crash meant that it only saw limited service during 1977 and 1978, and it was finally withdrawn following another crash in May 1978.


The accident was investigated by the DTCE, part of the French Military, which was responsible for accidents involving prototype aircraft in France. The wreckage was recovered to a hangar at Le Bourget, with some of it being flown by Antonov An-22 to the Soviet Union.


One theory is that the Tu-144 maneuvered to avoid a French Mirage chase plane that was attempting to photograph its unique canards, which were advanced for the time, and that the French and Soviet governments colluded with each other to cover up such details. The flight of the Mirage was denied in the original French report of the incident, perhaps because it was engaged in industrial espionage. More recent reports have admitted the existence of the Mirage (and the fact that the Soviet crew were not told about the Mirage's flight) though not its role in the crash. However, the official press release did state: "though the inquiry established that there was no real risk of collision between the two aircraft, the Soviet pilot was likely to have been surprised." Howard Moon also stresses that last-minute changes to the flight schedule would have disoriented the pilots in a cockpit with notably poor vision. He also cites an eyewitness who claims the co-pilot had agreed to take a camera with him, which he may have been operating at the time of the evasive maneuver. The initial approach may have been an attempted landing on the wrong runway, which occurred due to a last-minute shortening of the Tu-144's display.

Bob Hoover believed that the rivalry of the Tu-144 and Concorde led the pilot of the Tu-144 to attempt a maneuver that went beyond the abilities of the aircraft: "That day, the Concorde went first, and after the pilot performed a high-speed flyby, he pulled up steeply and climbed to approximately 10,000 [feet] before leveling off. When the Tu-144 pilot performed the same maneuver he pulled the nose up so steeply l didn't believe he could possibly recover."

Another theory claims that there was deliberate misinformation on the part of the Anglo-French team. The main thrust of this theory was that the Anglo-French team knew that the Soviet team were planning to steal the design plans of the Concorde, and the Soviets were allegedly passed false blueprints with a flawed design. The case, it is claimed, contributed to the imprisonment by the Soviets of Greville Wynne in 1963 for spying. Wynne was imprisoned on 11 May 1963 and the development of the Tu-144 was not sanctioned until 16 July.

In 2005, during the production of the Russian documentary "The fight for supersonic flight: The truth about the Tu-144," E. Krupyanskiy said: "There were certain experimental control units present on the plane (Tu-144), that were installed on the plane for the first time." On the in-cockpit footage released before the test flight, the control console is clearly seen fully exposed on the back of the captain's seat. The control units were supposed to be disabled, with the console covered up and sealed for the test flight, however in the wreckage the console was found without seals or cover. Krupyanskiy said "They enabled a system, which was used to improve the maneuverability characteristics of the aircraft... improving the effectiveness of the rudders." E. Gorynov (another Tu-144 test pilot) stated that he is completely sure that usage of these experimental technologies was not decided by the crew. He also stated that he was 30 meters away from the aircraft before the test flight and overheard a discussion by the crew, where the captain said loudly: "If we are going to die, then at least we will die all together". This is further supported by the fact that after a meeting held in the evening before the flight, a G. N. Bazhenov (the navigator on the flight) went to speak with E. Gorynov, who stated in the documentary that Bazhenov was very worried, and said the leadership had "come up with something", but that he would not be able to disclose anything in detail. It was concluded in the documentary by the narrator that the flight crew was not at fault for the incident.


Rescue mission over the Pacific

On 22 December 1978, a small Cessna 188 aircraft, piloted by Jay Prochnow, became lost over the Pacific Ocean. The only other aircraft in the area that was able to assist was a commercial Air New Zealand flight. After several hours of searching, the crew of the Air New Zealand flight located the lost Cessna and led it to Norfolk Island, where the plane landed safely.

The incident

Jay Prochnow, a retired US Navy pilot, was delivering a Cessna 188 from the USA to Australia. Prochnow had a colleague who was flying another Cessna 188 alongside him. The long trip would be completed in four stages. On the morning of 20 December, both pilots took off from Pago Pago. His colleague crashed on take off, but was unharmed. Prochnow landed and set out the following day to Norfolk Island.

When Prochnow arrived at the region where he believed Norfolk Island was, he was unable to see the Island. He informed Auckland Air Traffic Control (AATC), but at this point there was no immediate danger. He continued searching; after locating more homing beacons from other islands, he realised his automatic direction finder had malfunctioned and he was now lost somewhere over the Pacific Ocean. He alerted AATC and declared an emergency.

There was only one plane in the vicinity, Air New Zealand Flight 103, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10 travelling from Fiji to Auckland. The flight had 88 passengers on board. The captain was Gordon Vette, the first officer was Arthur Dovey, and the flight engineer was Gordon Brooks. Vette knew that if they did not try and help, Prochnow would almost certainly die. Vette was a navigator, and at the time of the incident he still held his licence. Furthermore, another passenger, Malcome Fortsyth, was also a navigator; when he heard about the situation he volunteered to help. As the DC-10 did not have an onboard radar, the crew had to come up with creative ways to find the lost Cessna. By this time, Prochnow had crossed the international date line, and the date was now 22 December.

Vette was able to use the setting sun to gain an approximate position of the Cessna. Then contact was established over a VHF radio which had a range of 200 nautical miles. It was hoped the DC-10 would be making a vapour trail to make it more visible. After contacting Auckland it was determined that weather conditions were not suitable for a trail. Brooks knew that by dumping fuel they could produce a vapour trail. As the search was getting more and more desperate, they decided to try it. Prochnow did not see the trail, and it was starting to get dark. Vette wanted all the passengers to be involved, so he asked them to look out of the windows and invited small groups to come to the cockpit.

As it got darker and darker, Prochnow considered ditching, but Vette did not want to give up. The crew of the DC-10 were able to use the exact moment of sunset to get a better fix on Prochnow's position. They also used a technique known as "aural boxing" to try to pinpoint the small plane; this took over an hour to complete. Once it had been done, they had a much better approximation of Prochnow's position. The DC-10 used its strobe lights to try to make itself more visible to the Cessna. It took some time, but eventually Prochnow reported seeing light. However, this was not the DC-10, it was an oil rig, and Prochnow went towards it. This was identified as Penrod, which was being towed from New Zealand to Singapore. This gave Prochnow’s exact position. After some confusion about the exact position of the Penrod, it was finally established that the estimates of the crew of the DC-10 were very accurate. Furthermore, Prochnow was probably able to make it to Norfolk Island with his remaining fuel. He touched down on Norfolk Island after being in the air for twenty-three hours and five minutes.

Events following the incident

McDonnell Douglas awarded the crew a certificate of commendation for "the highest standards of compassion, judgment and airmanship."
Gordon Brooks was killed when the DC-10 operated Air New Zealand Flight 901 that he was flight engineer on crashed into Mount Erebus, Antarctica, on 28 November 1979. Vette published a book about the Flight 901 disaster, called Impact Erebus.


[Kirakat] Yamal Airlines

Yamal Airlines A320-200 // VP-BHX
Yamal Airlines Canadair CRJ-200 // VQ-BPD
Yamal Airlines Tu-134A-3 // RA-65132
Yamal Airlines B737-400 // VQ-BIK

Minden, amit a poggyászokról tudni akartál...

Alábbi írásunkban megpróbálunk betekintést nyújtani a repülőtér kulisszái mögé. Ezúttal a poggyászok útját követjük nyomon, és a rájuk leselkedő veszélyforrásokat vesszük sorra. Mint az a későbbiekben is olvasható, több fázisnál is tapasztalhatunk "biztonsági réseket", de ez még ne vegye el kedvünket a poggyásszal történő utazástól! És azt se feltételezzük majd a legközelebbi repülőútnál, hogy bárki, aki csak ránéz a poggyászunkra, az annak tartalmára utazik!

Poggyászmérleggel ellátott standard check-in pult
Egy átszállás nélküli egyszerű, úgyn. point-to-point járat sémája: az utas megérkezik a reptérre, majd beáll a járatának megfelelő check-in sorba, és a gép tervezett indulási idejéhez képest jellemzően legkorábban 90-120, legfeljebb 45-30 perccel, még a check-in zárásáig, leadja az úgyn. feladott poggyászát. A check-in pultban ülő alkalmazott leméri, majd felcímkézi a poggyászt egy vonalkóddal ellátott úgyn. taggel, melynek segítségével a csomag rendeltetési helye és ideje a poggyászosztályozó automatika számára egyértelműen azonosíthatóvá válik. Az utas legközelebb már legfeljebb a gépen ülve látja, ahogy a rakodók a poggyászoskocsiról a poggyászszalagra pakolják azt, és az bekerül a gép gyomrába. Ha úgyn. ULD-s a járatot teljesítő repülőgép, akkor legfeljebb a konténert látja az utas, és reménykedik, hogy benne van az ő poggyásza is valamelyikben. Leszállást követően, mire a rakodók kiszedik a poggyászokat a gép rakteréből, az utas legtöbbször már az utashídon vagy a forgalmi előtéren át gyalogol ill. busszal tart a terminál felé. Legközelebb kb. a leszállástól számított 15-20p múlva látja viszont a poggyászát.

Mi történik a poggyásszal a poggyászfeladástól a raktérbe kerülésig?

Az induló és az érkező poggyászok útja a reptéren
Miután a check-in ablaknál búcsút intettünk feladott poggyászunknak, az egy röntgenes átvilágítást követően - hacsak nem próbáltunk meg valami tiltott dolgot felvinni a repülőre a bőröndünkbe rejtve - rendszerint ugyanarra a  - nagyobb reptereken akár több km hosszúságú - szalagra kerül mint minden más desztinációra induló poggyász. Ez egészen addig így is marad, míg a poggyászosztályozóban egy robotkar be nem szkenneli a taget, és az adott járathoz hozzárendelt csúszdára ki nem löki a csomagot. A csúszda alján egy rakodó tartózkodik, aki géptípustól függően vagy úgyn. ULD-konténerekbe rakja, vagy poggyászoskocsikra stócolja fel a poggyászokat.
Mivel a poggyászok nem egyenletesen, hanem változó intenzitással érkeznek meg a szalagvégre, egy-egy lájtosabb időszakban elméletileg lehetőség adódhat a poggyászok megdézsmálására. Magas biztonsági fokozatú munkaterületről van szó, így a helyiség természetesen be van kamerázva. Az itt dolgozókat, mint bármelyik másik repülőtéri alkalmazottat, a munkaterületre való belépéskor átvilágítják, de kifelé jövet rendszerint nincs semmilyen kontroll...

Igazak azok a históriák, miszerint a poggyászok dézsmálása a gép rakodása közben, a raktérben történik?

Harc az idővel és a csomagokkal a raktérben
Mire a poggyászoskocsit, a járatfelvétel zárását követően, kiengedik a gép mellé, a járat indulásáig rendszerint már nincs túl sok idő, ezért a poggyászokat elég jó tempóban kell a szalagra hányniuk a rakodóknak. A raktérben ezalatt, géptípustól függően, 1-2 ember tartózkodik, akik nyomás alatt dolgoznak, hiszen a poggyászok folyamatosan jönnek fel a szalagon, nekik pedig úgy kell pakolniuk azokat, hogy az hely szempontjából a lehető leggazdaságosabb legyen, s eközben a biztonsági előírásokat is betartsák.
A raktérben igaz, hogy nincsen kamera, de gyakran olyan gyér a világítás, és szűk a hely, hogy ilyen körülmények közt nem valószínű, hogy bárki is a poggyászok tartalma közt kutakodna...

Vannak olyan mendemondák is, miszerint a poggyászátvilágítóból szólnak le, mely bőröndben van ígéretes zsákmány...

Sajnos volt már rá példa a világban. Ehhez több, különböző munkaterületen dolgozó munkatárs együttes, összehangolt, rendőrségi szakszóval élve bűnszervezetben elkövetett "munkájára" van szükség...

Miért dobálják a rakodók a poggyászokat?

Nehéz fizikai munka a rakodóké
Az utasok, annak reményében hogy így poggyászukat így nagyobb biztonságban tudhatják, gyakran befóliáztatják azokat a repülőtéren. A fólia azonban, annak nagy tapadási súrlódása miatt, csak nehezíti a rakodók munkáját, ugyanis a poggyász nem csúszik, hanem megtapad miatta a különböző felületeken. A rakodó emiatt, még, ha könnyű is a poggyász, kénytelen lesz dobni azt ahelyett, hogy csúsztatni próbálná. 
A legtöbb reptéren a rakodókat nem segítik speciális gépek, ezért kézi erővel kell minden egyes poggyászt - lehet az akár egy, a check-in pultban 'heavy' taggel ellátott, túlsúlyos, 30kg-os koffer is - átpakolniuk egyik helyről a másikra (szalagról kocsira, kocsiról szalagra, szalagról a poggyásztérbe), egy járat alkalmával soktonnyányi súlyt, ráadásul több alkalommal. Ha a rakodók a poggyászokat, a gravitáció segítségét igénybe nem véve, szép akkurátusan pakolnák, a járat nem tudna a számára előírt úgyn. fordulóidő - ez fapados járat esetén jellemzően kb. 30p - alatt megfordulni egy célállomásról, és az utasok is jóval többet várhatnának a csomagjukra a megérkezésüket követően...

Lehet-e az ellen védekezni, hogy egy feladott poggyászba az utas tudta nélkül csempésszen valaki bármilyen illegális dolgot (pl. védett/tiltott állatot/növényt, drogot) ki vagy be egy másik országba? A Bangkok Hilton c. filmben a Katrinát alakító Nicole Kidmant ártatlanul vádolják meg (majd ítélik halálra) Thaiföldön egy hasonló eset miatt...

Poggyászfóliázást majd' minden reptéren kínálnak
Védekezni ellene nem lehet, hiszen egy alkalmas eszközzel egy pillanat alatt el lehet róla távolítani a fóliát, sőt akár észrevétlenül vissza is lehet rá "varázsolni", ha szükséges. A cipzárral zárható bőröndök kinyitásához (és észrevehetetlen visszazárásához) pedig egy egyszerű golyóstoll is elég. Innentől mindenkinek a fantáziájára van bízva, hogy mit lehet ki- ill. belecsempészni az utas poggyászába annak tudta nélkül...

Feladott poggyász nem csak bőrönd lehet - léteznek különleges poggyászok is: bicikli, síléc, szörfdeszka, házikedvencek vagy akár egészen extrém poggyászok: fenyőfa, sörösrekesz, LCD tv, szigony...

Légitársasága válogatja ill. utazási osztálytól is függ, hogy egy járatra hány darab és milyen súlyú feladott poggyász "vihető fel" díjmentesen. Bevett szokás az, hogy 1db max. 23kg-os, de díj ellenében - kilogrammonként fizetendő, de max. 32kg-os lehet! - akár több darab feladására is lehetőség van, viszont darabtól függetlenül a max. súlyhatár összesen 60kg körül van...

Kerékpár feladása speciális védőcsomagolásban
A túlméretes, úgyn. 'bulky' poggyászokat (pl. bicikli, sílécek, snowboard, golfkészlet) egy külön pultban kell feladni, ezek az átvilágítást követően, bár nem a bőröndöket továbbító szalagon, de végül ugyanúgy a poggyászosztályozóba kerülnek, ahol a rakodók ezeket is poggyászoskocsikra teszik. A túlméretes poggyászok általában a gép farkában lévő úgyn. bulk raktérbe kerülnek...

Megesik, hogy ha a fedélzetre valamilyen okból felkerül egy "túlméretes" kézipoggyász, azt leküldi a személyzet a raktérbe?

Bevett gyakorlat, hogy a légitársaságok úgyn. size-wize cartokat állítanak fel a check-in pultok előtt, melyek standard kézipoggyász méretűek (pl: 23cm x 41cm x 51cm). Ha a cartba bele tudjuk tenni a poggyászunkat, és a súlya is rendben van, akkor az felmehet a fedélzetre kézipoggyászként. Az utasok gyakorta folyamodnak különböző cselekhez, melyekkel megpróbálják feljuttatni a gépre "túlméretes" vagy "túlsúlyos" poggyászaikat. Ha sem a check-in-esnek, sem a beszállítást végző alkalmazottaknak nem tűnik fel a turpisság, gyakran megesik, hogy mire az utolsó utasok is felszállnak a fedélzetre, az ülések feletti poggyásztartó rekeszek teljesen megtelnek. Ilyenkor a légikísérők megpróbálnak nekik helyet szorítani, de ha nagyon nem megy nekik, a csomagokat bizony leküld(het)ik a rakodókkal a raktérbe a feladott poggyászok mellé. Ez egyike a késési okoknak, ugyanis ilyen esetben a már rendszerint lezárt raktérajtókat újra ki kell nyitnia a rakodóknak...

A babakocsi is poggyásznak számít?

Kézipoggyász méretűre összecsukható speciális babakocsi
A babakocsi, csakúgy mint a tolószék, poggyásznak számít, így már a check-innél poggyászcímkét kap. Ezeket az utas egészen a gép ajtajáig hozhatja, innentől a rakodók veszik át tőle, és teszik be a gép leghátsó, úgyn. bulk rakterébe. Leszállást követően az utas, ha szerencsés, már a gépajtóban megkaphatja a babakocsit, mert addigra jó esetben már kiszedik azt a raktérből a rakodók...

Hogyan fordulhat elő, hogy a poggyász nem érkezik meg azzal a járattal, amivel kellett volna neki?

Különböző poggyász-tagek
Aranyszabály, hogy poggyász az utasa nélkül nem utazhat, csak speciális esetben ('rush' poggyász), tehát, ha a poggyász fel lett adva, de az utas nem jelenik meg a beszállítókapuban a járatfelvétel zárásáig, akkor a poggyászát a rakodóknak ki kell keresniük a raktérből és el kell onnan távolítaniuk.
Leggyakrabban persze akkor szokott elvészni a poggyász, ha egy közbülső repülőtér közbeiktatásával repülünk. Ilyenkor egy külön taget ('hot transfer') kap a poggyász már a check-in-nél abból a célból, hogy a rakodók tudják, hogy az adott poggyászt a raktér legkönnyebben elérhető, raktérajtó felőli részére kell pakolniuk, hogy mikor a közbülső repülőtéren kinyitják majd a rakodók a raktérajtót, egyből külön pakolhassák őket a végcéljukra érkező ('local') poggyászoktól. Ha a rakodó a rakodási utasítás ellenére valamiért mégsem veszi észre ezt a taget, és a csatlakozásig csak kevés idő áll az utas rendelkezésére, könnyen előfordulhat, hogy a poggyász a végcéljukra érkezőkkel egy szalagon várja majd gazdáját ..mindhiába! Persze elromolhat a poggyászosztályozó automatika is, de ez a ritkább eset...

Mi a teendő, ha sérülten érkezik, netán egyáltalán nem érkezik meg a poggyászunk?

A csomagátvételi csarnok jelölése a leszállást követően
Ha megérkezik a poggyászunk, de sérülten, neadjisten hiányosan, netalántán egyáltalán nem, azt érkezés után a poggyászátvételi csarnokban a helyi Lost&Found ablaknál kell bejelenteni, ahol jegyzőkönyvet vesznek fel róla, ám a poggyász eltűnésének tényét az adott légitársaság ügyfélszolgálatánál is be kell jelenteni. Érte később, a légitársaság szabályzatának megfelelően, kártérítés jár.
Az, hogy nem érkezett meg a poggyászunk a járattal, amivel jöttünk, még nem jelenti, hogy el is veszett, hiszen ha a check-in-ben rátett tag még rajta van, a számítógépes rendszer segítségével könnyedén megtudható, hol van. Ha szerencsénk van, és a következő járatra még fel tudják tenni a poggyászt, megadott címre díjmentesen utánunk küldik. Persze megesik, hogy tévedésből vagy gondatlanságból a világ egy távoli pontjára kerül, ahonnét csak hónapok múltán kapjuk kézhez, rosszabb esetben valóban (nyomtalanul) elvész mindörökre. A statisztikák szerint 1000-ból 900 poggyász időben és épségben érkezik meg, és a 100 elveszett poggyászból mindösszesen átlagosan 1-2 veszik el végleg...


  • A jegykezelők hivatottak eldönteni, hogy melyik poggyász minősül kézipoggyásznak, vagyis mi vihető fel a repülőgép fedélzetére, és mi nem. Bár a szabályok légitársaságonként változhatnak, a kézipoggyász általánosan elfogadott mérete: 115 cm (pl: 23cm x 41cm x 51cm), súlya: 3-5 kg.  Kézipoggyászként csak a jegykezelők által ellenőrzött és "cabin baggage" címkével ellátott poggyászok vihetők fel a fedélzetre. Amennyiben a csomagot a jegykezelő túl nagynak vagy súlyosnak ítéli, azt feladott poggyászként kell továbbítani.
  • Nagyméretű, azaz kézipoggyásznál nagyobb, hangszert (pl. cselló) csak úgy lehet a fedélzetre vinni, ha jegyet vásárolnak a tárgynak, mert egy külön ülés szükséges az elhelyezéséhez.
  • Vadász- vagy sportfegyverek - töltetlenül! - ill. lőszerek a szállításukra vonatkozó rendkívül szigorú szabályok betartása mellett is csak és kizárólag feladott poggyászként adhatók fel.
  • Bizonyos légitársaságok esetében felvihető a fedélzetre 5 kg-ig, speciális szállításra alkalmas táskában-dobozban élő állat (kutya, macska). (A súlykorlát alól felmentést csak az úgyn. szervizkutya [pl. vakvezető] kaphat!) 5 kg súly felett élőállat szállítására csak a repülőgép csomagterében kerülhet sor.
  • A nemzetközi biztonsági szabályoknak megfelelően folyadék csak kis mennyiségben és különleges csomagolásban juthat a repülőgép fedélzetére. Lehetőség szerint a folyadékot (krémet, zselét, olajat, zsírt) a feladandó poggyászba csomagoljanak! A fedélzeti használatra szánt folyadékot egyenként 100 milliliteres tárolóedényekben lehet szállítani. A kis tégelyeket egy maximum 1 literes űrtartalmú, átlátszó és újrazárható műanyag zacskóban kell elhelyezni. A 100 milliliternél nagyobb mennyiségű folyadékot a biztonsági személyzet elkobozza és megsemmisíti.
    A biztonsági vizsgálat, a ruházat és a kézipoggyász átvilágítása után az utasok a tranzit területére érkeznek, ahol szabadon válogathatnak az üzletek, éttermek kínálatából. Az itt vásárolt termékeket – beleértve a folyadékokat is – szabadon felvihetik a repülőgép fedélzetére, mert ezek már átestek a biztonsági ellenőrzésen.

Forrás (részben):

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Understanding Jeppesen charts

Pranas Drulis from Air Baltic explains Jeppesen departure...

...and approach charts for Vilnius Airport, Lithuania.


Today's most advanced solution: the electronic flight bag
Jeppesen (also known as Jeppesen-Sanderson) is an American company that specializes in navigational information, operations management and optimization solutions, crew and fleet management solutions and flight training products and services. Jeppesen serves four market segments (Commercial Aviation, Business Aviation, Military, and General Aviation). Airlines and private pilots, airline operations centers, military teams, ship operators and boaters, as well as railway companies use Jeppesen charts, data, and operations management tools. The company is a subsidiary of The Boeing Company. Jeppesen also publishes related software, some of which is used on its electronic flight bag and in others offered by avionics manufacturers and other third parties.

Jeppesen is headquartered in Inverness, Colorado, an unincorporated area of Arapahoe County, with offices around the world, including Neu-Isenburg (Germany), Massa (Italy), Crawley (United Kingdom), Gothenburg (Sweden), Canberra (Australia) and Gdańsk (Poland). The company employs approximately 3,200 people.

In the navigation space, which is where Jeppesen started, Jeppesen's charts are often called "Jepp charts" or simply "Jepps" by pilots, due to the charts' de facto popularity. This popularity extends to electronic charts, which are increasingly favored over paper charts by pilots and mariners as mobile computing devices, electronic flight bags, integrated electronic bridge systems and other display devices become more common and readily available.


  • 1941: Jeppesen moved the company from Salt Lake City, Utah, to Denver, Colorado.
  • 1947: Jeppesen and the CAA collaborated to introduce standard instrument approach procedures and to establish the National Flight Data Center.

1957: Jeppesen expanded to Europe by opening an office in Frankfurt, Germany to provide services to customers in Europe and beyond.

1961: The company was purchased by the Times-Mirror Company (parent company of the Los Angeles Times).

  • 1973: Jeppesen NavData® was first used commercially in flight management computer guidance systems (FMCGS).
  • 1974: Jeppesen entered the flight training business when Times-Mirror merged it with Sanderson Films.

Jeppesen began a series of acquisitions that added to its product and service offerings:
    1. Bottlang Airfield Manual added visual flight rules (VFR) approach and airport information for Europe;
    2. Icarus, which became OpsData, added runway and performance analysis, used to plan and optimize aircraft takeoff and landing performance.
      • 1989: Jeppesen purchased Lockheed DataPlan, a flight planning and weather services company. Jeppesen's current chief executive officer, Mark Van Tine, formerly worked for this company.

      • Between 1990 and 1995, Jeppesen expanded globally by opening offices in Australia and China to serve customers in the Asia-Pacific region, and continued to expand through acquisition by purchasing TannGuide, which became the JeppGuide airport directory; APU, which became part of OpsData; and International Aviation Publishers, which created aviation maintenance training manuals;
      • 1996: Jeppesen introduced JeppView, which provided a complete, worldwide library of terminal aeronautical charts on CD-ROM; Jeppesen acquired MentorPlus, a maker of PC-based aviation and marine moving map and flight planning applications;
      • 1998: Jeppesen introduced Internet-based delivery of NavData updates.

      • 2000: Jeppesen purchased Nobeltec, Inc., a Portland, Oregon-based company that provides marine navigation software and charts; Jeppesen was acquired by The Boeing Company. Boeing bought Jeppesen from the Tribune Company, which had acquired Times-Mirror and was selling off its non-core assets;
      • 2002: Jeppesen's first commercial electronic flight bag and Internet-based chart delivery were introduced;
      • 2003: Jeppesen became the first commercial organization to be certified by the Federal Aviation Administration as a Qualified Internet Communications Provider (QICP);
      • 2004: Jeppesen acquired SBS International, a New York City-based provider of crew scheduling services. Jeppesen acquired SBS through an arrangement with Boeing, which had purchased SBS in 2001;
      • 2006: Jeppesen purchased Carmen Systems, a provider of crew scheduling and disruption management software. The company was headquartered in Gothenburg, Sweden, and had some 300 employees. Jeppesen quickly consolidated Carmen and SBS product offerings and locations;
      • 2007: Jeppesen purchased C-MAP, a provider of digital maritime cartography, data services and other navigational information. C-MAP became part of Jeppesen's marine division. It has operations in Italy, the United Kingdom, Norway, Greece, Poland, Russia, India, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia and the United States;
      • 2008: Jeppesen purchased Ocean Systems, Inc., an Alameda, California-based provider of vessel and voyage optimization solutions for commercial marine operations; Jeppesen received FAA approval for its Airport Moving Map application for Class 2 electronic flight bags;
      • 2009: Jeppesen received FAA approval to design and validate required navigation performance (RNP) procedures in the United States; Jeppesen sold its Nobeltec product line to Signet USA.

      • 2010: Jeppesen received approval from the Civil Aviation Safety Authority of Australia to design, validate and maintain both required navigation performance and conventional instrument approach procedures; Jeppesen was named the 2010 INFORMS Prize winner for its organization-wide use of operations research.
      • 2012: Jeppesen-designed arrival procedures are rolled out for Denver International Airport.
      • 2013: Jeppesen introduces Mobile FlightDeck VFR for general aviation pilots; Jeppesen concludes sale of journey planning business to SilverRail Technologies.
      • 2014: Jeppesen rolls out FlightDeck Pro for Windows 8.


      [Portrait] Elrey Borge Jeppesen

      Jeppesen in Varney Air Lines overall, 1930
      Elrey B. Jeppesen was born to Danish immigrant parents in 1907—too late to be part of the first generation of inventor/pilots that included the Wright brothers and others who flew before and during World War I. Yet, he was a peer of Charles Lindbergh (born 1902) and other second-generation pilots who set new records, tested exotic new aircraft and truly dazzled the public’s imagination with aviation’s possibilities.

      The magic of flight

      Jeppesen was in love with flying nearly from the first moment he saw an airplane. He took his first ride in a JN4D “Jenny,” in the summer of 1921. A barnstormer named Briggs charged him $4 for a 10-minute ride. “We got up there, and the sun was shining, and we’d make turns and banks, and I could see the hills and the clouds and the colors brought on by the setting sun,” Jeppesen later wrote. “This was magic. I remember how great it felt when he’d go into a bank and pull it around, and you’d sit tight in the seat. The sun would shine through the canvas, and you could see the ribs, the sunlight, the river below and the mountains.”

      In 1927, just after Lindbergh’s transatlantic flight, Jeppesen decided to drop out of high school and focus on a flying career. He moved from his parent’s home into a hangar at Pearson Field, near Portland, Ore. There, he performed odd jobs and eventually started a hamburger stand, serving lunch to pilots, mechanics, passengers and visitors. He began flying lessons and quickly demonstrated a proficiency and skill far beyond that of a beginner. After only two hours and 10 minutes of instruction, Jeppesen soloed in an Alexander Eaglerock, powered by a Curtiss OX-5 engine. (Many early aviators logged time in the stately biplanes, manufactured first in Englewood, Colo., and later in Colorado Springs, Colo.)

      Jeppesen in the cockpit of the JN4D Jenny in 1927
      That same year, Jeppesen and a friend pooled their money and paid $500 for a 1916 Jenny from World War I. The friend subsequently backed out of the deal, leaving Jeppesen as sole owner. For the next several months, he gave rides in the plane to earn extra money.

      He considered going back to school for his high school diploma and then trying for a college degree in engineering, so he flew down to Oregon State University in Corvallis to meet with the dean of men. “I must have looked like a hippie,” recalled Jeppesen. “I was in my puttees, leather jacket, and the rest of . the regular flying gear we wore. I’ve reviewed it many times in my mind, trying to figure out what happened.”

      The dean hardly spoke to Jeppesen, except to ask how he was going to finance his way through school. Jeppesen responded that he was going to give flying lessons, barnstorm and sell rides. “But it was no-go,” he said, adding, “I know that if I’d been in that position and a young man came to see me and said, ‘I have an airplane,’ I’d be pretty interested in getting that kid to attend my school. But that’s not the way it goes.” Jeppesen decided to focus 100 percent on a flying career.

      The Little Black Book

      Oregon's 27th pilot license, signed by Orville Wright
      Over the next several months, Jeppesen made money as a barnstormer in Oregon, California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas, finally landing in Dallas. He began a period of “job-hopping,” while he honed his flying skills. He worked briefly as a flight instructor at Love Field, and then Fairchild Aerial Surveys hired him to fly their photographers. That job led to a brief assignment, photographing and mapping parts of Mexico’s coast and interior. Jeppesen received Mexico’s pilot license number 33. With the natives continually shooting at his plane, Jeppesen found that Mexico could be an exciting place, but the work eventually turned tedious, and he left to join Boeing Air Transport. He piloted the first plane to carry a stewardess, Miss Ellen Church. He returned to Fairchild for a short time and then moved on, first to Southwest Air Fast Express and then to Varney Air Service.

      Hand-written notes of Medicine Bow Field, Wyoming
      While this period may not have demonstrated job loyalty, picking his way to safe landing spots did provide Jeppesen with many experiences in navigation. He began to note landmarks, fences, poles and other obstacles along his routes. Jeppesen’s thorough and detailed nature became obvious during his quest for personal safety. Sometimes, when he landed at airports, he’d walk around the area, recording distances and heights. He recorded names and phone numbers of airport managers, as well as nearby farmers, so he could phone ahead for current weather conditions. He then purchased a 10-cent black notebook to organize his expanding notes. Eventually, other pilots learned of his “little black book” and began to ask for copies.

      Finally, in 1934, Jeppesen decided he should charge a small fee for copies of his black book. He borrowed $450 from the bank, bought 50 binders and had 50 copies mimeographed. The little black books sold for $10 each, and pilots gladly paid the price. Some even began collecting data and forwarding it to Jeppesen. Other information sources included city and county engineers, surveyors and local residents.

      Nadine Liscomb
      Not surprisingly, Jeppesen had little time for the ladies—until he met Nadine Liscomb, a United Airlines stewardess working the Boeing 247 he was flying from Chicago to Omaha. He called for coffee, and when she entered the cockpit, both were smitten almost instantly. “I ordered coffee, but I got Nadine,” Jeppesen often joked.

      They married on Sept. 24, 1936, beginning a love affair and true partnership that would last 60 years. The young couple grew their fledgling chart business and their family, first living in Cheyenne, Wyo., and later, Salt Lake City, Utah. Jeppesen continued to fly for United, while they ran the business from their home. In 1941, he transferred to Denver, and the company moved into a storefront on East Colfax Avenue.

      World War II brought additional business, with the Army and Navy both wanting “Jeppcharts.” Armed services personnel wanted Jeppesen to stay out of the military, so he could continue to run his business, providing charts critical to their military operations.

      Like many civilian commercial pilots, Jeppesen did fly some missions for the Air Transport Command, a government military agency. In 1943, the ATC awarded a contract to United Airlines to fly transpacific routes, and Jeppesen was one of the pilots selected for these operations. After finished his training on the C-87, he made just one trip to Brisbane, Australia, in December 1943, before the War Department grounded him to manage his chart business.

      Painful decisions

      Jeppesen as a United pilot in his mid-20's
      After the war ended, Jeppesen continued to fly for United. The aviation industry boomed during the postwar years, and his company benefited from the surge. In 1947, the Civil Aeronautics Administration adopted the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Jeppesen worked closely with the CAA to create the template design.

      Growth necessitated another move for the company, from downtown Denver to Stapleton Airport. The burgeoning aviation business, the addition of new airports and the airlines’ expansion to international markets all contributed to a nearly unmanageable pace for both the company and Jeppesen himself. Overworked and suffering from a bad back, he continued to fly a full schedule with United, while overseeing his business on his days off.

      In 1954, at the age of 47, Jeppesen made the painful decision to retire from United and devote himself to his business. He had logged 18,000 hours and more than three million miles in 24 years of service. For three years after his retirement, he took a back route to his office at Stapleton, just so he wouldn’t have to pass the United sign at the company’s hangar.

      His company’s rapid growth, coupled with remarkable changes in aviation and technology, almost predetermined the likelihood that management would have to change in order for the company to survive. Jeppesen hadn’t finished high school, and although he had taken some correspondence courses, he never earned a business degree. He had the vision, drive and discipline to launch the company and see it through adolescence, but it would take more to get it to the next level, and it would take deep pockets. He also worried that any inaccurate chart information could result in a fatal plane crash, potentially a huge liability. He feared that he and his wife could lose everything, including the company they loved.

      Jeppesen employees at Stapleton Airport in 1961
      In 1961, Jeppesen sold his company to Times Mirror Corporation. The decision would benefit his company, but would lead to his eventual ouster. One provision of the sale required Jeppesen to vacate the president’s position within five years and select his own successor. Despite interviewing several highly qualified candidates, Jeppesen could find no one suitable for the job. Times Mirror finally replaced Jeppesen with Chester “Chess” Pizac, naming Jeppesen chairman of the board, emeritus. Jeppesen printed his business cards with the word “emeritus” omitted. The company’s new guard didn’t value his role and contributions, and, eventually, Times Mirror moved Jeppesen’s office out of the building and into space at the Stapleton Airport terminal.

      In 1968, Times Mirror acquired Sanderson Films, a company that sold audiovisual materials for pilot training. The founder, Paul Sanderson, had been a ground school instructor who wanted to standardize a high level of quality in pilot education. Seeing the synergies between the two businesses, Times Mirror merged the two companies in 1974.

      Later years

      A Jeppesen Airway Manual nowadays
      After Horst A. Bergmann took over the reins as Jeppesen’s president in 1987, he decided to find a more positive role for Jeppesen in the company—one that acknowledged and capitalized on his enormous contribution. “I felt that if you have a historical basis for a company, it’s good to work from there and move towards the future,” Bergmann said. Bergmann also recognized that connecting the employees with the founder could provide a solid basis for company pride and commitment. He noted that employees wanted to find ways to recognize Jeppesen and help him gain his rightful place in aviation history.

      In time, Captain Jeppesen would be widely recognized for his contributions. His honors include induction into the Colorado Aviation Hall of Fame and the National Aviation Hall of Fame. He was presented the Tony Jannus Award, signifying outstanding achievement in the field of scheduled air transportation, and was a member of the Order of Daedalians. The most meaningful honor came when the main terminal at the new Denver International Airport was named for him. Many individuals and organizations, including the Silver Wings Fraternity and the Colorado Aviation Historical Society, backed the idea and worked hard to make it happen.

      Replica of Lundeen's sculpture of Jeppesen
      The City and County of Denver and Jeppesen Sanderson Inc. formed the Jeppesen Aviation Foundation to raise money for a sculpture to grace the new terminal. The commission was awarded to George Lundeen, a sculptor and resident of Loveland, Colo. Jeppesen employees contributed nearly $50,000 towards the $189,000 cost for the bronze statue. The remainder came from Times Mirror, pilots, friends and citizens. Elrey and Nadine Jeppesen were honored guests at Denver International Airport’s dedication, on Feb. 29, 1995. Janet Conner, who worked closely with Jeppesen in the 1980s, spoke of that moment. “The dedication, the naming the terminal in his honor, was the highlight of his life,” she said. “He was absolutely thrilled.”

      After both Elrey and Nadine Jeppesen’s health had failed precipitously, on June 10, 1996, Nadine passed away, from complications of emphysema. Her husband mourned her passing every day. His licensed practical nurse, Annette Brott, often found him “talking to Nadine,” deep into the night. On Nov. 26, 1996, only six months after Nadine died Capt. Jeppesen “went west.” He was two months short of his 90th birthday.

      • Tony Jannus Award in 1975
      • National Aviation Hall of Fame in 1993
      • Colorado Aviation Hall of Fame in 2000
      • Oregon Aviation Hall of Honor
      • OX5 Aviation Hall of Fame
      • NBAA Meritorious Service Award
      • Edward Warner Award, 1995
      • Honorary degree from the University of Denver


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      Gambia Bird A319-100 / D-ASTA
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      PRM-utasok jogai a légiközlekedésben

      Fogyatékkal élő, csökkent mozgásképességű vagy egyszerűen idős személyeknek, azaz közel minden ötödik európainak szüksége lehet utazáskor vagy a reptéren történő kommunikáció során szükségleteinek megfelelő segítségre. Ha Ön is ebben a helyzetben van az Európai Jogi szabályozás számos, az Európai Unió valamennyi repülőterén alkalmazandó olyan rendelkezést ír elő, melynek célja hogy Önnek is ugyanúgy hozzáférhetővé tegye e közlekedést, mint bármely más utas számára diszkrimináció és további költségek nélkül.

      Először is tudnia kell, hogy senki nem tagadhatja meg Öntől a helyfoglalást vagy a beszállást fogyatékossága vagy mozgási nehézsége miatt. Ez alól egyedül a nemzeti vagy nemzetközi szabályozás által indokolt biztonsági intézkedések, vagy műszaki kötöttség képezhet kivételt, mint például a repülőgép mérete.

      Bármilyen módon intézi is a helyfoglalást, ha szükségleteihez igazított segítséget kíván igénybe venni, sajátos igényeit az indulás előtt legalább 48 órával jeleznie kell.

      A repülőtéren pusztán arra kell ügyelnie, hogy az indulás előtt megkívánt időben érkezzen és érkezését jelezze a járat szerint kijelölt utasfelvételi pultnál, illetve az információs pontokon . A segítségnyújtással megbízott személy itt fogja Önt keresni. Amennyiben kívánja, e személy segítséget nyújt Önnek az utasfelvételi formaságok intézésében. Felhívjuk a figyelmét, hogy az Európai Unióbol induló járatokon műszaki lehetetlenség kivételével és 48 órás előzetes értesítés feltételével a légitársaságok kötelesek ingyen szállítani orvosi segédeszközét és maximum két mozgást segítő berendezését, mely lehet kerekesszék, mankó vagy hasonló egyéb eszköz. Ezt követően szükség esetén ugyanez a személy elkíséri Önt a beszálló kapuhoz, hogy segítséget nyújtson a különböző ellenőrzéseknél. Bármely más utassal azonos jogon Ön is használhatja a repülőtéren rendelkezésre álló különböző infrastruktúrákat. A segítségnyújtáshoz szükséges eszközök mindig az Ön mozgásképességéhez lesznek igazítva.

      Beszálláskor Ön elsőbbséget élvez és beszállása a legjobb körülmények között, megfelelő eszközök segítségével történik. Mozgást segítő eszközét az utazás alatt a poggyásztérben helyezik el. A repülés ideje alatt természetesen a repülőgép személyzetének feladata lesz, hogy segítséget nyújtson Önnek.

      Ha fogyatékossága szükségessé teszi és előre kérte, vakvezető kutyája hivatalosan is elkísérheti Önt az utastérbe. A biztonsági előírásokat is személyre szabott módon közlik Önnel.

      Végezetül pedig, akár elérte úticélját akár átutazóban van, leszálláskor egy másik személy fogja várni, hogy segítségére legyen az utasoknak fenntartott kijáratig.

      Felhívjuk szíves figyelmét az előzetes értesítés fontosságára! Kellő időben történő értesítés nélkül az érintettek csak lehetőségeikhez mérten tudják majd segíteni. Ha úgy véli, hogy e rendelkezéseknek nem tettek eleget kérdését, panaszát az adott légitársaság, vagy a repülőtér üzemeltetője elé is terjesztheti. (a Budapest Airport elérhetőségei: velemeny@bud.hu, valamint a terminálokon található ún. feedback kártyák) Végső jogorvoslatként panaszt tehet az országa szerinti nemzeti ellenőrző szerveknél (Egyenlő Bánásmód Hatóság, Nemzeti Közlekedési Hatóság), vagy az EU illetékes hivatalainál. Ennek elérhetőségét, valamint a fenti szabályozás részletes leírását az apr.europa.eu internetes oldalon találja.


      US Boneyards

      Abilene Regional Airport (ABI/KABI) is a public airport 5 km southeast of Abilene, in Taylor County, Texas.

      Abilene Regional is also home to Eagle Aviation Services, Inc., which is a heavy-maintenance base for all American Eagle aircraft. Basically every plane in the airline's fleet is maintained at ABI. The airport grounds also act as an aircraft boneyard for American Eagle, which stores around 20 retired Saab 340 turboprop aircraft which remain in the airline's livery. American Eagle replaced these propjets with Embraer regional jets.

      Davis–Monthan Air Force Base (DM AFB) (DMA/KDMA) is a United States Air Force base located approx. 8 km south-southeast of downtown Tucson, Arizona.

      The base is best known as the location of the Air Force Materiel Command's 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group (AMARG), the aircraft boneyard for all excess military and government aircraft.

      With the end of WWII, operations at the base came to a virtual standstill. It was then the base was selected as a storage site for hundreds of decommissioned aircraft, with the activation of the 4105th Army Air Force Unit. The 4105th oversaw the storage of excess B-29s and C-47 "Gooney Birds." Tucson's low humidity and alkali soil made it an ideal location for aircraft storage and preservation, awaiting cannibalization or possible reuse — a mission that has continued to this day.

      Kingman Airport (IGM/KIGM) is a public use airport located 15 km northeast of Kingman, a city in Mohave County, Arizona, United States.

      Today, large numbers of civilian airliners are stored there and remarketed or recycled into spare parts and into their base metals.

      Laurinburg–Maxton Airport (MXE/KMEB) is a public use airport located 5 km north of Maxton, Robeson County and east of Laurinburg, Scotland County in North Carolina.

      Today the airfield is noted for being the home of Charlotte Aircraft, a company which parts-out and scraps older aircraft. Visitors to the airfield can see a number of 727s, DC-10s, and other aircraft in various stages of being dismantled and scrapped.

      The Mojave Air and Space Port (MHV/KMHV), also known as the Civilian Aerospace Test Center, is located in Mojave, California.

      The Mojave airport is also known as a storage location for commercial airliners, due to the vast area and dry desert conditions. Numerous large Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, Lockheed, and Airbus aircraft owned by major airlines are stored at Mojave. Some aircraft reach the end of their useful lifetime and are scrapped at the Mojave aircraft boneyard, while others are refurbished and returned to active service.

      Phoenix Goodyear Airport (GYR/KGYR) (formerly Goodyear Municipal Airport) is a public airport southwest of Goodyear, in Maricopa County, Phoenix, Arizona.

      AeroTurbine, Inc operates a maintenance facility on the airfield which comprises maintenance, storage and disposal. The northern side of the airfield is used for storage and many Boeing 727, Douglas DC-9s and DC-10s are visible from the road as they await their fate.

      Pinal Airpark (MZJ/KMZJ) is a public-use airport located 13 km northwest of Marana, in Pinal County, Arizona.

      Its main purpose is to act as a boneyard for civilian commercial aircraft. Old airplanes are stored there with the hope that the dry desert climate will mitigate any form of corrosion in case the aircraft is pressed into service in the future. It is the largest commercial aircraft storage and heavy maintenance facility in the world. Even so, many aircraft which are brought there wind up being scrapped. The majority of the aircraft at Pinal Airpark formerly belonged to Northwest Airlines, though many other airlines are represented as well.

      Roswell International Air Center (RIAC) (ROW/KROW), also known as Roswell Industrial Air Center, is a public-use airport located 11 km south of Roswell, in Chaves County, New Mexico, United States.

      The site is the storage facility for many of American Airlines' retired Airbus A300-600R wide body jetliners.

      Southern California Logistics Airport (VCV/KVCV), also known as Victorville Airport, is a public airport located in Victorville in San Bernardino County, California approx. 32 km north of San Bernardino.

      The airport is home to Southern California Aviation, a large transitional facility for commercial aircraft.

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